This documents is a notes file for reading Niccolo Machiavelli’s “Prince”.
|prudence||wisdom in the way of caution an provision|
|weir( and mole)||запруда|
|(weir and) mole||кротовый дренаж|
|vicissitudes||regular change from one to another|
|impetuously||порывистый и импульсивный|
|hardihood||unyielding boldness and daring|
|pretexts||excuse, false reason|
|audacity||boldness and or fearlessness|
|scrupulous||exact and careful|
|confer honour on||grant an honour tto|
|discerned||suspected to be discovered|
|whence||from which place or source|
|exactions||the act of demanding with authority|
|imposts||tax, or exact duty|
|pre-eminent||exceeding others in quality or rank|
|hitherto||so far?, until now|
|put X to rout||make them retreat chaotically|
|many authors are wont to set off||get accustomed, make X accustomed|
|thereto||to him, to it, to that|
|inchoate||just started, immature and thus chaotic|
|sagacious||farsighted, with sound judgement|
|rash game||risky, hasty|
|wrought by||p.p. of work, caused by|
|thither||to that point, to that place|
|trodden by||crushed by being walked on|
|enervated||weakened and debilitated|
|entreaty||respectively ask, entertain|
|borne in mind||p.p. of bear|
|wherefore||because of what|
|availed himself of smth||turn smth to the advantage of himself|
|quelling||subdue or suppress|
|waywardness||Obstinate, contrary and unpredictable|
|desist (from a plan)||cease to proceed|
|dissemble his designs||disguise or conceal|
|exigencies||demand or requirement|
|magnanimous||noble and generous|
|dregs of the people||worst and lowest|
|conjoin||v of conjugation, marry, unite|
|imparting his design||give, disclose, share|
|extricated||free from bounds|
|at a stroke||with a single effort, at once|
|ill savour||bad taste|
|relished||take pleasure in|
|leniency||mercy or forgiveness|
|pusillanimity||vice of being timid and cowardly|
|old saw||old saying|
|circumspection||caution, attention to all facts of a case|
|public magazines||storages (not journals!)|
|victual||food for humans|
|posted in leaguer||besiege|
|forbear||keep away from, refrain|
|rash and presumptuous||excessively self-confident, arrogant|
|valiant||possessing, showing courage|
|eschew||avoid an idea|
|fickle||quick to change opinion, insincere|
|reproach||disgrace or shame|
|wide asunder||torn apart, in halves|
|betake himself||take yourself to do something|
|facile (not firm)||lazy, simplistic, easy to convince|
|incur the reproach||make oneself suffer disgrace|
|sumptuous||magnificent, lavish, luxurious|
|lavish||luxurious, superabundant, unrestrained|
|transcendent||surpass usual limits|
|guard X from the toils||toil here means “trouble”, not “labour”|
|discern||perceive, detect, distinguish|
|asseverate||assert earnestly, confidently|
|licentious||disregarding accepted rules (esp. sexual)|
|ascribe||attribute smth to smb|
|scorn||display disdain for something|
|imputations||charging, accusing someone|
|begets hatred||to father, to produce, to cause|
|dissensions||dissent, esp. spoken|
|fomented||incite or encourage|
|succour||aid or assistance, refuge, shelter|
|had recourse to||use smth as a source of help|
|stanch friend||persistent and loyal|
|sagacity||the property of being a sage|
|hearken to||listen and hear with attention|
|whencesoever||from whatever place|
|height of folly||thoughtless action|
2. Unknown things
2.1. Ninian Hill Thomson
Apparently, was an Oxford University alumna, and scholar. She also seems to have studied British India law.
Discourses On Livy by Niccolò Machiavelli (1883) The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli (1910)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de%27_Medici,_Duke_of_Urbino Lorenzo di Piero de’ Medici (Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso di ˈpjɛːro de ˈmɛːditʃi]; 12 September 1492 – 4 May 1519) was the ruler of Florence from 1516 until his death in 1519. He was also Duke of Urbino during the same period. His daughter Catherine de’ Medici became Queen Consort of France, while his illegitimate son, Alessandro de’ Medici, became the first Duke of Florence.
2.3. Francesco Sforza
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_I_Sforza#Issue Francesco I Sforza KG (Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ˈpriːmo ˈsfɔrtsa]; 23 July 1401 – 8 March 1466) was an Italian condottiero who founded the Sforza dynasty in the duchy of Milan, ruling as its (fourth) duke from 1450 until his death. In the 1420s, he participated in the War of L’Aquila and in the 1430s fought for the Papal States and Milan against Venice. Once war between Milan and Venice ended in 1441 under mediation by Sforza, he successfully invaded southern Italy alongside René of Anjou, pretender to the throne of Naples, and after that returned to Milan. He was instrumental in the Treaty of Lodi (1454) which ensured peace in the Italian realms for a time by ensuring a strategic balance of power. 2.10 is his son.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Milan#House_of_Sforza_(1st_rule) Taking advantage of the state’s weakness and the resurgent Guelph-Ghibelline conflict, the commander-in-chief of the Milanese forces, Francesco I Sforza, defected from Milan to Venice in 1448, and two years later, after several side switches and cunning strategies, Sforza entered the city during Annunciation. He was then declared the new Duke of Milan by the City Council, using as a claim his marriage with Bianca Maria Visconti, illegitimate daughter of Filippo Maria.
2.5. Duke of Ferrara
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_Ferrara The Duchy of Ferrara (Latin: Ducatus Ferrariensis; Italian: Ducato di Ferrara; Emilian: Ducà ad Frara) was a state in what is now northern Italy. It consisted of about 1,100 km2 south of the lower Po River, stretching to the valley of the lower Reno River, including the city of Ferrara. The territory that was part of the Duchy was ruled by the House of Este from 1146 to 1597.
In 1471, the territory was transferred to the Papal States. Borso d’Este, already Duke of Modena and Reggio, was created Duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Borso and his successors ruled Ferrara as a quasi-sovereign state until 1597, when it came under direct papal rule.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_Ferrara In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, and he overcame the pontifical army in 1512 defending Ravenna. (Gaston de Foix fell in this battle, as an ally of Alfonso.)
2.8. Louis XII of France
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his 2nd cousin once removed and brother in law at the time, Charles VIII, who died without direct heirs in 1498.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII Louis opened negotiations with the Duchy of Savoy and by May 1499 had hammered out an agreement that allowed French troops to cross Savoy to reach the Duchy of Milan.
2.10. Lodovico Sforza
Note! Lodovico Sforza is not Francesco Sforza. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovico_Sforza Ludovico Maria Sforza (Italian: [ludoˈviːko maˈriːa ˈsfɔrtsa]; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), also known as Ludovico il Moro (Italian: [il ˈmɔːro]; “the Moor”).[b] “Arbiter of Italy”, according to the expression used by Guicciardini, was an Italian Renaissance nobleman who ruled as Duke of Milan from 1494 to 1499. His ascendancy followed the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza. A member of the Sforza family, he was the fourth son of Francesco I Sforza. A patron of the arts during the Milanese Renaissance, he commissioned the fresco of The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci. He also played a central role in the Italian Wars.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII Meanwhile, Ludovico Sforza had been gathering an army, mainly among the Swiss, to take Milan back. In mid-January 1500, his army crossed the border into the Duchy of Milan and marched toward the city of Milan. Upon hearing the news of Sforza’s return, some of his partisans in the city rose up. On 1 February 1500, Marshal Trivulzio decided that he could not hold the city, and the French retreated to the fortresses west of the city. Sforza was welcomed back into the city by a joyous crowd of his supporters on 5 February 1500.
Same war, very shortly after.
Same war, go read some books, not worth detailing here.
However, during the Hellenistic period, they emerged as a dominant state in central Greece and expanded by the voluntary annexation of several Greek city-states to the League. Still, the Aetolian League had to fight against Macedonia and were driven to an alliance with Rome, which resulted in the final conquest of Greece by the Romans.
Macedonian Wars (214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms. They resulted in Roman control or influence over Greece and the rest of the eastern Mediterranean basin, in addition to their hegemony in the western Mediterranean after the Punic Wars. Traditionally, the “Macedonian Wars” include the four wars with Macedonia, in addition to one war with the Seleucid Empire, and a final minor war with the Achaean League (which is often considered to be the final stage of the final Macedonian war). The most significant war was fought with the Seleucid Empire, while the war with Macedonia was the second, and both of these wars effectively marked the end of these empires as major world powers, even though neither of them led immediately to overt Roman domination. Four separate wars were fought against the weaker power, Macedonia, due to its geographic proximity to Rome, though the last two of these wars were against haphazard insurrections rather than powerful armies. Roman influence gradually dissolved Macedonian independence and digested it into what was becoming a leading empire.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great ntiochus III the Great (ænˈtaɪəkəs; Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας Antiochos Megas; c. 241 – 3 July 187 BC) was a Greek Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 222 to 187 BC. He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire’s territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas (Greek for “Great King”), the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire, before suffering a serious setback, towards the end of his reign, in his war against Rome.
Declaring himself the “champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination”, Antiochus III waged a four-year war against the Roman Republic beginning in mainland Greece in the autumn of 192 BC before being decisively defeated at the Battle of Magnesia. He died three years later on campaign in the east.
Philip V (Greek: Φίλιππος Philippos; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus) of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philip’s reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedon against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing the latter but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign.
2.19. King Charles of France
Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: l’Affable; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13.
To secure his rights to the Neapolitan throne that René of Anjou had left to his father, Charles made a series of concessions to neighbouring monarchs and conquered the Italian peninsula without much opposition. A coalition formed against the French invasion of 1494–98 attempted to stop Charles’ army at Fornovo, but failed and Charles marched his army back to France.
In an event that was to prove a watershed in Italian history, Charles invaded Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) in September 1494 and marched across the peninsula virtually unopposed. He arrived in Pavia on 21 October 1494 and entered Pisa on 8 November 1494. The French army subdued Florence in passing on their way south. Reaching Naples on 22 February 1495, the French Army took Naples without a pitched battle or siege; Alfonso was expelled, and Charles was crowned King of Naples.
2.20. State of Lombardy
2.21. State of Genoa
Threatened by Alfonso V of Aragon, the Doge of Genoa in 1458 handed the Republic over to the French, making it the Duchy of Genoa under the control of John of Anjou, a French royal governor. However, with support from Milan, Genoa revolted and the Republic was restored in 1461. The Milanese then changed sides, conquering Genoa in 1464 and holding it as a fief of the French crown. Between 1463–1478 and 1488–1499, Genoa was held by the Milanese House of Sforza. From 1499 to 1528, the Republic reached its nadir, being under nearly continual French occupation. The Spanish, with their intramural allies, the “old nobility” entrenched in the mountain fastnesses behind Genoa, captured the city on May 30, 1522, and subjected the city to a pillage. When the admiral Andrea Doria of the powerful Doria family allied with the Emperor Charles V to oust the French and restore Genoa’s independence, a renewed prospect opened: 1528 marks the first loan from Genoese banks to Charles.
2.22. Florentines (Republic?)
The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Fiorentina, pronounced [reˈpubblika fjorenˈtiːna], or Repubblica di Firenze), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors’ place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.
During the Republic’s history, Florence was an important cultural, economic, political and artistic force in Europe. Its coin, the florin, became a world monetary standard. During the Republican period, Florence was also the birthplace of the Renaissance, which is considered a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth”.
The republic had a checkered history of coups and countercoups against various factions. The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de’ Medici. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de’ Medici (later Pope Leo X) reconquered the republic in 1512.
Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac. The Medici reassumed their rule in 1531 after an 11-month siege of the city, aided by Emperor Charles V. Pope Clement VII, himself a Medici, appointed his relative Alessandro de’ Medici as the first “Duke of the Florentine Republic”, thereby transforming the Republic into a hereditary monarchy.
The second Duke, Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, conquering Siena. In 1569, the pope declared Cosimo the first grand duke of Tuscany. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until 1737.
Bentivoglio (Latin: Bentivoius) was an Italian family that became the de facto rulers of Bologna and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance, although their rule did not survive a century. 1401-1512
2.24. Countess of Forli
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caterina_Sforza Caterina Sforza (1463 – 28 May 1509) was an Italian noblewoman, the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola, firstly with her husband Girolamo Riario, and after his death as a regent of her son Ottaviano.
The descendant of a dynasty of noted condottieri, from an early age, Caterina distinguished herself through her bold and impetuous actions taken to safeguard her possessions from possible usurpers and to defend her dominions from attack, when they were involved in political intrigues.
2.25. Lords of Faenza
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manfredi_family#Manfredi_family_members_who_were_Lords_of_Faenza The Manfredi were a noble family of northern Italy, who, with some interruptions, held the seigniory of the city of Faenza in Romagna from the beginning of the 14th century to the end of the 15th century. The family also held the seigniory of Imola for several decades at the same time.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesaro During the Renaissance it was ruled successively by the houses of Montefeltro (1285–1445), Sforza (1445–1512) and Della Rovere (1513–1631). Under the last family, who selected it as capital of their duchy, Pesaro saw its most flourishing age, with the construction of numerous public and private palaces, and the erection of a new line of walls (the Mura Roveresche). In 1475, a legendary wedding took place in Pesaro, when Costanzo Sforza and Camilla d’Aragona married.
Capital of Romagna. Wiki does not really include that much information about Rimini during the Italian Wars.
Town in central Italy.
In 1382, his descendant Giovanni Da Varano built a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) long wall to defend the city, while a sumptuous Ducal Palace was built by Giulio Cesare in 1460. Giulio Cesare’s daughter, Camilla Battista da Varano, was canonized a saint by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010. In 1336 the University was founded. The Da Varano were nearly extinguished by Cesare Borgia in 1502, and in 1545 the city fell under direct Papal administration.
Town in Toscana. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piombino#The_Battle_of_Piombino The Castle of Piombino remained a Pisan possession until Gerardo Appiani, ceding Pisa to the Milanese Visconti, carved out the independent state of the Principality of Piombino that included the islands of the Tuscan Archipelago: Elba, Pianosa, Montecristo, Capraia, Gorgona, and Giglio, for his family who held it until 1634. In 1445, through his marriage with Caterina Appiani, Rinaldo Orsini acquired the lordship. In 1501–1503 the principality was under Cesare Borgia. In 1509 the Appiani became princes of the Holy Roman Empire with the title of Piombino.
Okay, I do not remember exactly, what was with them.
Alexander is considered one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. As a result, his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. On the other hand, two of Alexander’s successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Saint Peter.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romagna Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west. The region’s major cities include Cesena, Faenza, Forlì, Imola, Ravenna, Rimini and City of San Marino (San Marino is a landlocked state inside the Romagna historical region).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuscany#Renaissance Tuscany, especially Florence, is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance. Though “Tuscany” remained a linguistic, cultural, and geographic conception rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended its dominion in Tuscany through the annexation of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405, and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno was bought in 1421 and became the harbour of Florence.
From the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici family. Initially, under Cosimo, Piero the Gouty, Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome to become Pope Leo X. Florence was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII and Charles V appointed Alessandro de’ Medici as the first formal hereditary ruler.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia#Later_years_and_death Duke of Valentinois (French: Duc de Valentinois; Italian: Duca Valentino) is a title of nobility, originally in the French peerage. It is currently one of the many hereditary titles claimed by the Prince of Monaco despite its extinction in French law in 1949. Though it originally indicated administrative control of the Duchy of Valentinois, based around the city of Valence, the duchy has since become part of France, making the title simply one of courtesy.
It has been created at least four times: on August 17, 1498, for Cesare Borgia, in 1548 for Diane of Poitiers, in 1642 for Prince Honoré II of Monaco, and most recently in 1715 for Prince Jacques I of Monaco.
Always Ghibelline, Pisa tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century, and even managed to defeat Florence in the Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of Uguccione della Faggiuola. Eventually, however, after a long siege, Pisa was occupied by Florentines in 1405. Florentines corrupted the capitano del popolo (“people’s chieftain”), Giovanni Gambacorta, who at night opened the city gate of San Marco. Pisa was never conquered by an army. In 1409, Pisa was the seat of a council trying to set the question of the Great Schism. In the 15th century, access to the sea became more difficult, as the port was silting up and was cut off from the sea. When in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian states to claim the Kingdom of Naples, Pisa reclaimed its independence as the Second Pisan Republic.
This Alba is not the “British Albion”! It is the village of Alba Longa in Lazio.
2.40. Hiero the Syracusan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiero_II_of_Syracuse Hiero II (Greek: Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek tyrant of Syracuse from 275 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon. He was a former general of Pyrrhus of Epirus and an important figure of the First Punic War. He figures in the story of famed thinker Archimedes shouting “Eureka”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia Cesare Borgia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈtʃeːzare ˈbɔrdʒa, ˈtʃɛː-]; Valencian: Cèsar Borja [ˈsɛzaɾ ˈbɔɾdʒa]; Spanish: César Borja [ˈθesaɾ ˈβoɾxa]; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507) was an Italian ex-cardinal and condottiero (mercenary leader) of Aragonese (Spanish) origin, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli. He was an illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI and member of the Spanish-Aragonese House of Borgia.
After initially entering the Church and becoming a cardinal on his father’s election to the Papacy, he became, after the death of his brother in 1498, the first person to resign a cardinalate. He served as a condottiero for King Louis XII of France around 1500, and occupied Milan and Naples during the Italian Wars. At the same time he carved out a state for himself in Central Italy, but after his father’s death he was unable to retain power for long.
One for the two factions of Roman Barons, fought the 2.43
The House of Colonna, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian noble family, forming part of the papal nobility. It was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope (Martin V) and many other church and political leaders. The family is notable for its bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. Thereafter, historians recorded that “no peace had been concluded between the princes of Christendom, in which they had not been included by name”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonna_family
2.45. Dukedom of Urbino
Urbino (UK: ɜːrˈbiːnoʊ ur-BEE-noh; Italian: [urˈbiːno] (listen); Romagnol: Urbìn) is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
Cesare Borgia dispossessed Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, and Elisabetta Gonzaga in 1502, with the complicity of his father, Pope Alexander VI. After the attempt of Pope Leo X to appoint a young Medici as duke, thwarted by the early death of Lorenzo II de Medici in 1519, Urbino was part of the Papal States, under the dynasty of the dukes Della Rovere (1508–1631). They moved the court to the city of Pesaro in 1523 and Urbino began a slow decline that would continue until the last decades of the seventeenth century.
Magione (Italian pronunciation: [maˈdʒoːne]) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Perugia in the Italian region Umbria, located about 15 km west of Perugia.
2.47. revolt of Urbino
2.48. commotions in Romagna
2.49. Signor Paolo
Paolo Orsini (1450 – 18 January 1503) was an Italian condottiero in the service of the Papal States, Ferdinand of Aragon and the Republic of Florence.
He commanded the papal guards in 1485 when he and his cousin Virginio tried to take over Rome, but Paolo had all his goods confiscated as a result in 1496. He entered pope Alexander VI’s service in 1497 and served alongside Cesare Borgia in the latter’s attempt to conquer Bologna.
He supported il Valentino in aiding the Duchy of Urbino who wished to return to ruling their state despite the Borgias’ refusal to allow this. After capturing Senigallia the Borgia used deception to arrest the four noblemen it wished to eliminate for taking part in the Magione conspiracy, with Vitellozzo Vitelli and Oliverotto da Fermo killed on 31 December 1502 by the assassin Michelotto Corella. Paolo and his cousin Francesco (fourth duke of Gravina and son of Raimondo Orsini) were both handed over at Città della Pieve, where they were strangled on 18 January 1503.
2.50. Sinigaglia / Senigallia
Senigallia (or Sinigaglia in Old Italian, Romagnol: S’nigaja) is a comune and port town on Italy’s Adriatic coast. It is situated in the province of Ancona in the Marche region and lies approximately 30 kilometers north-west of the provincial capital city Ancona. Senigallia’s small port is located at the mouth of the river Misa. It is one of the endpoints of the Massa-Senigallia Line, one of the most important dividing lines (isoglosses) in the classification of the Romance languages.
Note that Sinigaglia is not Senegal.
2.52. Messer Remiro d’Orco
On 26 December 1502, Ramiro was executed in the main plaza of Cesena, his body cut in two and his head stuck on a pike. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote in The Prince that Ramiro’s bloody actions were what prompted Cesare to execute him and distance himself from his crimes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesena Cesena (Italian pronunciation: [tʃeˈzɛːna]; Romagnol: Cisêna) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, served by Autostrada A14, and located near the Apennine Mountains, about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from the Adriatic Sea.
After Novello’s death (1465), Cesena returned to the Papal States, but was again seized by a local seignor, Cesare Borgia, in 1500. The city was elevated to capital of his powerful though short-lived duchy.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Wars Combined with the ambition of Ludovico Sforza, its collapse allowed Charles VIII of France to invade Naples in 1494, which drew in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
2.55. siege to Gaeta by French
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaeta#Middle_Ages In 1495, king Charles VIII of France conquered the city and sacked it. The following year, however, Frederick I of Aragon regained it with a tremendous siege which lasted from 8 September to 18 November.
In 1501 Gaeta was retaken by the French; however, after their defeat at the Garigliano (3 January 1504), they abandoned it to Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Ferdinand the Catholic’s general.
In 1528 Andrea Doria, admiral of Charles V, defeated a French fleet in the waters off Gaeta and gave the city to its emperor. Gaeta was thenceforth protected with a new and more extensive wall, which also encompassed Monte Orlando.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perugia#History Perugia (pəˈruːdʒə, US also -dʒiə, peɪˈ-, Italian: [peˈruːdʒa] (listen); Latin: Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the River Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 km (102 mi) north of Rome and 148 km (92 mi) southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio, and Marche.
After the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who had made himself lord of Perugia, the city became a pawn in the Italian Wars, passing to Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), to Pope Boniface IX (1403), and to Ladislaus of Naples (1408–14), before it settled into a period of sound governance under the Signoria of the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416–24), who reached a concordance with the papacy. Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni, who though they had no legal position, defied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500. Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1540, Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges.
The House of Baglioni is an Umbrian noble family that ruled over the city of Perugia between 1438 and 1540, when Rodolfo II Baglioni had to surrender the city to the papal troops of Pope Paul III after the Salt War. At that point, Perugia came under the control of the Papal States.
2.59. Pope Julius II
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Julius_II Pope Julius II (Latin: Iulius II; Italian: Giulio II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant cultural and political legacy.
In 1506, Julius II established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St. Peter’s Basilica. The same year he organized the famous Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. The interests of Julius II lay also in the New World, as he ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas, establishing the first bishoprics in the Americas and beginning the catholicization of Latin America. In 1508, he commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo’s paintings in the Sistine Chapel.
Julius II was described by Machiavelli in his works as an ideal prince. Pope Julius II allowed people seeking indulgences to donate money to the Church which would be used for the construction of Saint Peter’s Basilica. In his Julius Excluded from Heaven, the scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam described a Pope Julius II in the afterlife planning to storm Heaven when he is denied entry.
2.60. San Pietro ad Vincula
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter_ad_Vincula Saint Peter ad Vincula (Saint Peter in Chains) alludes to the Bible story of the Liberation of Saint Peter, when the Apostle Peter, imprisoned by King Herod Agrippa, was rescued by an angel.
Perhaps, was also someone’s surname, but I haven’t found it.
In 1298 Pope Boniface VIII ordered the destruction of Colonna and its castle as punishment against the Colonna family. With the advent of Pope Clement V (1305) the Colonna family resumed the fief with all of its territories.
2.62. San Giorgio
Who is that? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Antonio_Sangiorgio ?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_d%27Amboise_(bishop) ? But he was not a cardinal?
2.65. Spanish Cardinals
Apparently, Cardinals from Spain, who elected Pope Julius II.
2.66. Agathocles the Sicilian
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agathocles_of_Syracuse Agathocles (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς, Agathoklḗs; 361–289 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse (317–289 BC) and self-styled king of Sicily (304–289 BC).
Seemingly, not much has happened in Syracuse during the Italian Wars.
Hamilcar, son of Gisgo and grandson of Hanno the Great, led a campaign against Agathocles of Syracuse during the Third Sicilian War. He defeated Agathocles in the Battle of the Himera River in 311 BC. He was captured during the Siege of Syracuse and then killed in 309 BC.
2.69. Oliverotto of Fermo
Oliverotto Euffreducci, known as Oliverotto of Fermo (1475, Fermo – 31 December 1502, Senigallia), was an Italian condottiero and lord of Fermo during the pontificate of Alexander VI.
2.71. Paolo Vitelli
Paolo Vitelli (1461 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian knight and condottiero as well as lord of Montone. He was born in Città di Castello, which had been captured by his father, Niccolò Vitelli. He was the brother of Vitellozo and Chiappino, both condottieri. He worked as a mercenary for the republic of Florence, where he was later suspected of treachery and executed. This led his brother Vitellozzo to repeatedly assail Tuscan properties.
Vitellozzo Vitelli (c. 1458 – December 31, 1502) was an Italian condottiero. He was lord of Montone, Città di Castello, Monterchi and Anghiari.
Friend of Leonardo Da Vinci.
2.74. Nabis, Prince of Sparta
Nabis (Greek: Νάβις) was the last king of independent Sparta. He was probably a member of the Heracleidae, and he ruled from 207 BC to 192 BC, during the years of the First and Second Macedonian Wars and the eponymous “War against Nabis”, i.e. against him. After taking the throne by executing two claimants, he began rebuilding Sparta’s power. During the Second Macedonian War, Nabis sided with King Philip V of Macedon and in return he received the city of Argos. However, when the war began to turn against the Macedonians, he defected to Rome. After the war, the Romans, urged by the Achaean League, attacked Nabis and defeated him. He then was assassinated in 192 BC by the Aetolian League. He represented the last phase of Sparta’s reformist period.
2.75. the Gracchi in Rome
The Gracchi brothers were two Roman brothers, sons of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus who was consul in 177 BC. Tiberius, the elder brother, was tribune of the plebs in 133 BC and Gaius, the younger brother, was tribune a decade later in 123–122 BC.
They attempted to redistribute the ager publicus – the public land hitherto controlled principally by aristocrats – to the urban poor[dubious – discuss] and military veterans, in addition to other social and constitutional reforms. After achieving some early success, both were assassinated by the Optimates, the conservative faction in the Senate that opposed these reforms.[dubious – discuss]
Have not found detail.
2.77. Potentates of Italy
I think, here he means all the powerful and important people who are not formally princes. Like Condottieri.
2.78. Pope Sixtus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sixtus_IV Pope Sixtus IV (Italian: Sisto IV: 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city’s new artistic age.
Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy.
He was followed by 2.32
2.79. Pope Leo
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Leo_X Pope Leo X (Italian: Leone X; born Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici, 11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo de’ Medici, ruler of the Florentine Republic, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but reduced papal finances.
Epaminondas (ɪˌpæmɪˈnɒndəs; Greek: Ἐπαμεινώνδας; 419/411–362 BC) was a Greek general of Thebes and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a pre-eminent position in Greek politics called the Theban Hegemony. In the process, he broke Spartan military power with his victory at Leuctra and liberated the Messenian helots, a group of Peloponnesian Greeks who had been enslaved under Spartan rule for some 230 years after being defeated in the Messenian War ending in 600 BC.
The battle description I have not found.
Joanna of Naples (15 April 1478 – 27 August 1518) was Queen of Naples by marriage to her nephew, Ferdinand II of Naples. After the death of her spouse, she was for a short while a candidate for the throne.
2.84. Giovanni Acuto
Sir John Hawkwood (c. 1323 – 17 March 1394) was an English soldier who served as a mercenary leader or condottiero in Italy. As his name was difficult to pronounce for non-English-speaking contemporaries, there are many variations of it in the historical record. He often referred to himself as Haukevvod and in Italy he was known as Giovanni Acuto, literally meaning “John Sharp” (or “John the Astute”) in reference to his “cleverness or cunning”. His name was Latinised as Johannes Acutus (“John Sharp”). Other recorded forms are Aucgunctur, Haughd, Hauvod, Hankelvode, Augudh, Auchevud, Haukwode and Haucod. His exploits made him a man shrouded in myth in both England and Italy. Much of his enduring fame results from the surviving large and prominent fresco portrait of him in the Duomo, Florence, made in 1436 by Paolo Uccello, seen every year by 4½ million tourists.
Wealthy Italian family, famous for fighting in the War of Milanese Succcession.
Carmagnola (Italian: [karmaɲˈɲɔːla]; Piedmontese: Carmagnòla [karmaˈɲɔla] (listen)) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located 29 kilometres (18 mi) south of Turin. The town is on the right side of the Po river.
Alberico da Barbiano (c. 1344–1409) was the first of the Italian condottieri. His master in military matters was the English mercenary John Hawkwood, known in Italy as Giovanni Acuto. Alberico’s compagnia fought under the banner of Saint George, as the compagnia San Giorgio.
Ferdinand II (Aragonese: Ferrando; Catalan: Ferran; Basque: Errando; Italian: Ferdinando; Latin: Ferdinandus; Spanish: Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called Ferdinand the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon and Sardinia from 1479, King of Sicily from 1468, King of Naples (as Ferdinand III) from 1504 and King of Navarre (as Ferdinand I) from 1512 until his death in 1516. He was also the Duke (nominal) of the ancient Duchies of Athens and Neopatria. He was King of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V) from 1475 to 1504, alongside his wife Queen Isabella I. From 1506 to 1516, he was the Regent of the Crown of Castile, making him the effective ruler of Castile. From 1511 to 1516, he styled himself as Imperator totius Africa (Emperor of All Africa) after having conquered Tlemcen and making the Zayyanid Sultan, Abu Abdallah V, his vassal. He was also the Grandmaster of the Spanish Military Orders of Santiago (1499-1516), Calatrava (1487-1516), Alcantara (1492-1516) and Montesa (1499-1516), after he permanently annexed them into the Spanish Crown. He reigned jointly with Isabella over a dynastically unified Spain; together they are known as the Catholic Monarchs. Ferdinand is considered the de facto first King of Spain, and was described as such during his reign (Latin: Rex Hispaniarum; Spanish: Rey de España).
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos or Dragaš Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantînos Dragásēs Palaiológos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last Roman emperor, reigning from 1449 until his death in battle at the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Constantine’s death marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, which traced its origin to Constantine the Great’s foundation of Constantinople as the Roman Empire’s new capital in 330. Given that the Byzantine Empire was the Roman Empire’s medieval continuation, with its citizens continuing to refer to themselves as Romans, Constantine XI’s death and Constantinople’s fall also marked the definitive end of the Roman Empire, founded by Augustus almost 1,500 years earlier.
Imola (Italian: [ˈiːmola]; Romagnol: Jômla or Jemula) is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The city is traditionally considered the western entrance to the historical region Romagna.
Pope Benedict XII turned the city and its territory over to Lippo II Alidosi with the title of pontifical vicar, the power remaining in the family Alidosi until 1424, when the condottiero Angelo della Pergola, “capitano” for Filippo Maria Visconti, gained the supremacy (see also Wars in Lombardy). In 1426 the city was restored to the Holy See, and the legate (later Cardinal) Capranica inaugurated a new regime in public affairs.
Various condottieri later ruled in the city, such as the Visconti; several landmark fortresses remain from this period. In 1434, 1438, and 1470, Imola was conferred on the Sforza, who had become dukes of Milan (Lombardy). It was again brought under papal authority when it was bestowed as dowry on Caterina Sforza, the bride of Girolamo Riario, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Riario was invested with the Principality of Forlì and Imola. This proved advantageous to Imola, which was embellished with beautiful palaces and works of art (e.g. in the cathedral, the tomb of Girolamo, murdered in 1488 by conspirators of Forli). The rule of the Riarii, however, was brief, as Pope Alexander VI deprived the son of Girolamo, Ottaviano, of power, and on 25 November 1499, the city surrendered to Cesare Borgia. After his death, two factions, that of Galeazzo Riario and that of the Church, competed for control of the city. The ecclesiastical party was victorious, and in 1504 Imola submitted to Pope Julius II. The last trace of these contests was a bitter enmity between the Vaini and Sassatelli families.
Forlì (fɔːrˈliː for-LEE, Italian: [forˈli] (listen); Romagnol: Furlè [furˈlɛ]; Latin: Forum Livii) is a comune (municipality) and city in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna.
Local factions with papal support ousted the family in 1327–29 and again in 1359–75, and at other turns of events the bishops were expelled by the Ordelaffi. Until the Renaissance the Ordelaffi strived to maintain the possession of the city and its countryside, especially against Papal attempts to assert back their authority. Often civil wars between members of the family occurred. They also fought as condottieri for other states to earn themselves money to protect or embellish Forlì.
Philopoemen ˌfɪləˈpiːmən (Greek: Φιλοποίμην Philopoímēn; 253 BC, Megalopolis – 183 BC, Messene) was a skilled Greek general and statesman, who was Achaean strategos on eight occasions.
From the time he was appointed as strategos in 209 BC, Philopoemen helped turn the Achaean League into an important military power in Greece. He was called “the last of the Greeks” by an anonymous Roman.
Xenophon of Athens (ˈzɛnəfən, zi-, -fɒn; Ancient Greek: Ξενοφῶν [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn]; c. 430 – probably 355 or 354 BC) was a Greek military leader, philosopher, and historian, born in Athens. At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies of the Achaemenid Empire, the Ten Thousand, that marched on and came close to capturing Babylon in 401 BC.
Today, Xenophon is best known for his historical works. The Hellenica continues directly from the final sentence of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War covering the last seven years of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) and the subsequent forty-two years (404 BC–362 BC) ending with the Second Battle of Mantinea.
Pistoia (US: pɪˈstɔɪə,piːˈstoʊjɑː, Italian: [pisˈtoːja] (listen) is a city and comune in the Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) west and north of Florence and is crossed by the Ombrone Pistoiese, a tributary of the River Arno.
In 1254 the Ghibelline town of Pistoia was conquered by the Guelph Florence; this did not pacify the town, but led to marked civil violence between “Black” and “White” Guelph factions, pitting different noble families against one another. In the Inferno of Dante, we encounter a particularly violent member of the Black faction of Pistoia, Vanni Fucci, tangled up in a knot of snakes while cursing God, who states: (I am a) beast and Pistoia my worthy lair. Pistoia remained a Florentine holding except for a brief period in the 14th century, when a former abbott, Ormanno Tedici, became Lord of the city. This did not last long, since his nephew Filippo sold the town to Castruccio Castracani of Lucca. The town was officially annexed to Florence in 1530.
Hannibal (ˈhænɪbəl; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, Ḥannibaʿl; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage in their battle against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed Cunctator (c. 280 – 203 BC), was a Roman statesman and general of the third century BC. He was consul five times (233, 228, 215, 214, and 209 BC) and was appointed dictator in 221 and 217 BC. He was censor in 230 BC. His agnomen, Cunctator, usually translated as “the delayer”, refers to the strategy that he employed against Hannibal’s forces during the Second Punic War. Facing an outstanding commander with superior numbers, he pursued a then-novel strategy of targeting the enemy’s supply lines, and accepting only smaller engagements on favourable ground, rather than risking his entire army on direct confrontation with Hannibal himself. As a result, he is regarded as the originator of many tactics used in guerrilla warfare.
The Locrians (Greek: Λοκροί, Locri) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Locris in Central Greece, around Parnassus. They spoke the Locrian dialect, a Doric-Northwest dialect, and were closely related to their neighbouring tribes, the Phocians and the Dorians. They were divided into two geographically distinct tribes, the western Ozolians and the eastern Opuntians; their primary towns were Amphissa and Opus respectively, and their most important colony was the city of Epizephyrian Locris in Magna Graecia, which still bears the name “Locri”. Among others, Ajax the Lesser and Patroclus were the most famous Locrian heroes, both distinguished in the Trojan War; Zaleucus from Epizephyrian Locris devised the first written Greek law code, the Locrian code.
2.99. Chiron the Centaur
In Greek mythology, Chiron (ˈkaɪrən KY-rən; also Cheiron or Kheiron; Ancient Greek: Χείρων, romanized: Kheírōn, lit. ’hand’) was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren since he was called the “wisest and justest of all the centaurs”.
2.100. Messer Annibale Bentivoglio
Probably, the Second, not the First: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annibale_II_Bentivoglio
Annibale II Bentivoglio (1467 – June 1540) was an Italian condottiero, who was shortly lord of Bologna in 1511–1512. He was the last member of his family to hold power in the city. He was the son of Giovanni II Bentivoglio.
Bentivoglio Altarpiece by Lorenzo Costa, detail with the portrait of Annibale II Bentivoglio. In 1487 he married Lucrezia d’Este. He served Florence and fought against the French invasion of Charles VIII in 1494. In 1500, in a changing of side ordered by his father, he paid 50,000 ducats to Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, French plenipotentiary in Milan, to save his city from any attack.
In 1506 Giovanni II was ousted from Bologna. Annibale and his brother Ermes remained in the city in order to favour the family’s return, but in vain. In 1511, thanks to Trivulzio’s intercession, he managed to return as ruler. But he was able to maintain his position only until June 10, 1512, after the French defeat at Ravenna.
He took refuge in Ferrara, where he died in 1540. He is portrayed in Lorenzo Costa the Elder’s Bentivoglio Altarpiece, commissioned by his father in 1488.
Some competitors to the Bentivoglio family?
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (ɔːˈriːliəs aw-REE-lee-əs; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.
Commodus (ˈkɒmədəs; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was a Roman emperor who ruled from 176 to 192. He served jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until the latter’s death in 180, and thereafter he reigned alone until his assassination. His reign is commonly thought of as marking the end of a golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire, known as the Pax Romana.
Publius Helvius Pertinax (ˈpɜːrtɪnæks; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was Roman emperor for the first three months of 193. He succeeded Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.
Marcus Didius Julianus (ˈdɪdiəs; 29 January 133 or 137 – 2 June 193) was Roman emperor for nine weeks from March to June 193, during the Year of the Five Emperors. Julianus had a promising political career, governing several provinces, including Dalmatia and Germania Inferior, and defeated the Chauci and Chatti, two invading Germanic tribes. He was even appointed to the consulship in 175 along with Pertinax as a reward, before being demoted by Commodus. After this demotion, his early, promising political career languished.
Lucius Septimius Severus (Latin: [sɛˈweːrʊs]; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present-day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of the emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Caracalla” (ˌkærəˈkælə; born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, 4 April 188 – 8 April 217) was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. He was a member of the Severan dynasty, the elder son of Emperor Septimius Severus and Empress Julia Domna.
Marcus Opellius Macrinus (məˈkraɪnəs; c. 165 – June 218) was Roman emperor from April 217 to June 218, reigning jointly with his young son Diadumenianus. As a member of the equestrian class, he became the first emperor who did not hail from the senatorial class and also the first emperor who never visited Rome during his reign.
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Elagabalus” (ˌɛləˈɡæbələs EL-ə-GAB-ə-ləs;[a] born Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus, c. 204 – 11/12 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222, while he was still a teenager. His short reign was conspicuous for sex scandals and religious controversy.
2.110. (Severus) Alexander
Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 21/22 March 235) was a Roman emperor, who reigned from 222 until 235. He was the last emperor from the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his slain cousin Elagabalus in 222. Alexander himself was eventually assassinated, and his death marked the beginning of the events of the Third Century Crisis, which included nearly fifty years of civil war, foreign invasion, and the collapse of the monetary economy.
Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus “Thrax” (“the Thracian”; c. 173 – 238) was Roman emperor from 235 to 238.
His father was an accountant in the governor’s office and sprang from ancestors who were Carpi (a Dacian tribe), a people whom Diocletian would eventually drive from their ancient abode (in Dacia) and transfer to Pannonia. Maximinus was the commander of the Legio IV Italica when Severus Alexander was assassinated by his own troops in 235. The Pannonian army then elected Maximinus emperor.
The geographical term Illyris (distinct from Illyria) was sometimes used to define approximately the area of northern and central Albania down to the Aoös valley (modern Vjosa), including in most periods much of the lakeland area. In Roman times the terms Illyria / Illyris / Illyricum were extended from the territory that was roughly located in the area of the south-eastern Adriatic coast (modern Albania and Montenegro) and its hinterland, to a broader region stretching between the Adriatic Sea and the Danube, and from the upper reaches of the Adriatic down to the Ardiaei.
From about mid-1st century BC the term Illyricum was used by the Romans for the province of the Empire that stretched along the eastern Adriatic coast north of the Drin river, south of which the Roman province of Macedonia began.
Gaius Pescennius Niger (c. 135 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. He claimed the imperial throne in response to the murder of Pertinax and the elevation of Didius Julianus, but was defeated by a rival claimant, Septimius Severus, and killed while attempting to flee from Antioch.
2.114. Albinus Emperor
Decimus Clodius Albinus (c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman imperial pretender between 193 and 197. He was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as the “Year of the Five Emperors”), and proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat and death the following year.
2.115. siege of Aquileja
Aquileia is a city-town at the north coast of Adriatic sea. Was important. During the siege, Maximinus was KIA.
I am not very sure, but seemingly, the Sultan of Egypt.
A consistent accession process occurred with every new Mamluk sultan. It more or less involved the election of a sultan by a council of emirs and mamluks (who would give him an oath of loyalty), the sultan’s assumption of the monarchical title al-malik, a state-organized procession through Cairo at the head of which was the sultan, and the reading of the sultan’s name in the khutbah (Friday prayer sermon). The process was not formalized and the electoral body was never defined, but typically consisted of the emirs and mamluks of whatever Mamluk faction held sway; usurpations of the throne by rival factions were relatively common.
2.117. Guelf and Ghibelline
Guelf, Broadly speaking, supported the Pope. Ghibelline, broadly speaking, supported the Holy Roman Emperor.
The Battle of Agnadello, also known as Vailà, was one of the most significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars.
Louis XII won over the Republic of Venice.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandolfo_Petrucci Pandolfo Petrucci (14 February 1452 – 21 May 1512) was a ruler of the Italian Republic of Siena during the Renaissance.
2.120. Messer Niccolo Vitelli
Niccolò Vitelli (1414–1486) was an Italian condottiero of the Vitelli family from Città di Castello.
The son of Giovanni Vitelli and Maddalena dei Marchesi di Petriolo, he was orphaned and grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Vitellozzo who introduced him into the political life of the area. He was podestà in some of the major Italian cities, such as Florence, Siena, Genoa and Perugia.
2.121. Città di Castello
Città di Castello (Italian pronunciation: [tʃitˈta ddi kasˈtɛllo]); “Castle Town”) is a city and comune in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. The city is 56 km (35 mi) north of Perugia and 104 km (65 mi) south of Cesena on the motorway SS 3 bis.
Under Pope Martin V in 1420 it was taken by the condottiero Braccio da Montone. Later Niccolò Vitelli, aided by Florence and Milan, became absolute ruler or tiranno. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger built an extensive palace for the Vitelli family.
In 1474 Sixtus IV sent his nephew Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, to rule the town. After fruitless negotiations he laid siege to the city, but Vitelli did not surrender until he knew that the command of the army had been given to Duke Federico III da Montefeltro. The following year Vitelli tried unsuccessfully to recapture the city. Cesare Borgia through a conspiracy in Senigallia ordered Vitelli was strangled in the evening of 12/31/1502 and Città di Castello were added to the Papal possessions.
2.122. Guido Ubaldo, Duke of Urbino
Guidobaldo (Guido Ubaldo) da Montefeltro (25 January 1472 – 10 April 1508), also known as Guidobaldo I, was an Italian condottiero and the Duke of Urbino from 1482 to 1508.
He fought as one of Pope Alexander VI’s captains alongside the French troops of King Charles VIII of France during the latter’s invasion of southern Italy; later, he was hired by the Republic of Venice against Charles. In 1496, while fighting for the pope near Bracciano, Guidobaldo was taken prisoner by the Orsini and the Vitelli, being freed the following year.
Guidobaldo was forced to flee Urbino in 1502 to escape the armies of Cesare Borgia, but returned after the death of Cesare Borgia’s father, Pope Alexander VI, in 1503.
2.123. her husband Count Girolamo
Girolamo Riario (1443 – 14 April 1488) was Lord of Imola (from 1473) and Forlì (from 1480). He served as Captain General of the Church under his uncle Pope Sixtus IV. He took part in the 1478 Pazzi conspiracy against the Medici, and was assassinated 10 years later by members of the Forlivese Orsi family.
2.125. Barons of Castile
Haven’t found much about them.
2.126. the Moors (a.k.a. Maurs?)
The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, romanized: Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an Islamic realm in southern Iberia during the Late Middle Ages. It was the last independent Muslim state in Western Europe.
2.127. Messer Bernabo of Milan
Haven’t actually found who he was.
Da Venafro was born in 1459 in Venafro, Molise. He moved to Siena and attended the university there graduating in jurisprudence. In 1488 Venafro was elected professor of law at the University of Siena. In November 1493 Antonio was elected Appellate Judge. As such he was arrested by the avant-garde of Charles VIII and forced to follow them in their march to Rome. He was freed a few days later only by a direct order of the King himself. A trusted adviser and private secretary of the Lord of Siena, Pandolfo Petrucci, he was named by the latter counselor and prime minister. In the month of October 1502 Venafro represented Pandolfo Petrucci at the Diet of La Magione; and later he went to Imola with Paolo Orsini, where a peace agreement was signed between Cesare Borgia and the conspirators of La Magione represented by Paolo Orsini.
Haven’t found who he was.
2.130. Philip V of Macedon, not the father of Alexander the Great, but he who was vanquished by Titus Quintius
Philip V (Greek: Φίλιππος Philippos; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus) of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philip’s reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedon against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing the latter but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign.
2.131. Titus Quintius
Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 228 – 174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.
2.132. Messer Giovanni Bentivoglio
Giovanni II Bentivoglio (12 February 1443 – 15 February 1508) was an Italian nobleman who ruled as tyrant of Bologna from 1463 until 1506. He had no formal position, but held power as the city’s “first citizen.” The Bentivoglio family ruled over Bologna from 1443, and repeatedly attempted to consolidate their hold of the Signoria of the city.
2.133. Kingdom of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples (Latin: Regnum Neapolitanum; Italian: Regno di Napoli; Neapolitan: Regno ’e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate kingdom also called the Kingdom of Sicily.
The Battle of Ravenna, fought on 11 April 1512, was a major battle of the War of the League of Cambrai. It pitted forces of the Holy League against France and their Ferrarese allies. Although the French and Ferrarese eliminated the Papal-Spanish forces as a serious threat, their extraordinary triumph was overshadowed by the loss of their brilliant young general Gaston of Foix. The victory therefore did not help them secure northern Italy. The French withdrew entirely from Italy in the summer of 1512, as Swiss mercenaries hired by Pope Julius II and Imperial troops under Emperor Maximilian I arrived in Lombardy. The Sforza were restored to power in Milan.
3.1.1. Kinds of States
- Wholly new
- Previously fee
- Previously princedoms
- Limbs joined on to the hereditary possessions (Mixed princedom)
- Previously free
- Previously princedoms
- With own force
- With others’ force
- With luck
- With merit
- Wholly new
3.2.1. I say, then, that hereditary States, accustomed to the family of their Prince, are maintained with far less difficulty than new States,
This is that “Traditional authority” by Max Weber: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_authority
3.3.1. cause common to all new States, namely, that men, thinking to better their condition, are always ready to change masters
So, a state with turmoil is more likely to continue being in turmoil? Is this what Putin relied upon, thinking that the DPR and LPR will be willing to change allegiance? Assuming that the fall of the Soviet Union is considered a “change of masters”?
Like, limiting the use of Russian Language.
3.3.3. And in this way you may find that you have enemies in all those whom you have injured in seizing the Princedom, yet cannot keep the friendship of those who helped you to gain it; since you can neither reward them as they expect, nor yet, being under obligations to them, use violent remedies against them.
Can we imply that those who “helped to gain it”, are more Ukrainian-enthusiastic Ukrainians? They would want total domination of Ukrainian as a language, and thus “cannot be rewarded”.
3.3.4. For the Prince, using the rebellion as a pretext, will not scruple to secure himself by punishing the guilty, bringing the suspected to trial, and otherwise strengthening his position in the points where it was weak.
The Kievan government is already promising a lot of punishments for the “collaborators”.
3.3.5. States which upon their acquisition are joined on to the ancient dominions of the Prince who acquires them, are either of the same Province and tongue as the people of these dominions, or they are not.
- This is, basically, nation-state way of thinking. The year is 1532, but they already know what a nation-state is.
- Can DPR and LPR be considered “being of the same Province and tongue”? Not sure.
3.3.6. When they are, there is a great ease in retaining them, especially when they have not been accustomed to live in freedom.
- Has the Donbass been accustomed to living in freedom?
- Keeping them in the state of DPR and LPR, is it really “retaining”?
Okay, first problem. “Root out” the line of “Ukrainian Government” has not happened.
3.3.8. if in other respects the old condition of things be continued, and there be no discordance in their customs, men live peaceably with one another
How much exactly was it possible to keep the “old condition of things” to be continued? Seemingly, not entirely.
How much of their “independent spirit” is still there? I know that Brittany still speaks their own Gaelic language, which is neither Roman, nor German. What about Burgundy, Gascony, and Normandy
3.3.10. But when States are acquired in a country differing in language, usages, and laws, difficulties multiply
So, there are two problems here actually.
- How do you actually estimate, or measure, that degree of “differing”? Seemingly, Putin sincerely believed some numbers that are not accurate.
- How would you “retain their customs”, if modern States expect a uniformity of laws?
3.3.11. best and most efficacious methods for dealing with such a State, is for the Prince who acquires it to go and dwell there in person
Note: Putin did not do that.
- This course has been followed by the Turk with regard to Greece
Hmm… Constantinople had fallen in 1453, and later Constantinople became Istanbul. 1532-1453=79. People who have remembered that are mostly dead, but the memory probably remains. 2022-79=1943.
- Moreover, the Province in which you take up your abode is not pillaged by your officers
Comments are superfluous.
3.3.12. Another excellent expedient is to send colonies into one or two places, so that these may become, as it were, the keys of the Province
Note that flats have been sold out widely in Crimea. Did this tactic actually work? Anyway, it does not seem to have worked for the Donbass.
3.3.13. A Prince need not spend much on colonies. He can send them out and support them at little or no charge to himself, and the only persons to whom he gives offence are those whom he deprives of their fields and houses to bestow them on the new inhabitants.
One of the things that are hard to imagine in the 21st century. “Give them land”, haha. Try to imagine giving out free land to your own citizens!
On the other hand, if you start massively building property on the territory of a new princedom, and give it out cheaply, it might work out. Cf. Israel building settlements on the West Bank, and the Turk massively selling flats and other property to everyone on the Northern Cyprus.
3.3.14. if instead of colonies you send troops, the cost is vastly greater, and the whole revenues of the country are spent in guarding it; so that the gain becomes a loss, and much deeper offence is given
Which is effectively happening with so many of the regions “pacified” in the recent years.
3.3.15. The Prince who establishes himself in a Province whose laws and language differ from those of his own people, ought also to make himself the head and protector of his feebler neighbours, and endeavour to weaken the stronger, and must see that by no accident shall any other stranger as powerful as himself find an entrance there.
I think, the “feebler neighbours” here would be the Crimean Tatars. Putin, instead of suppressing the Mejlis, should have given them all power they wanted. Then he would have had obtained a relatively weak, but extremely loyal and vocal supporting group, who would have been crucially interested in staying in Russia forever. “Divide and Conquer”
I wonder, what is the original word for “physician”? What kind of medical services were even available in 1532?
3.3.17. But no sooner was he in Milan than he took a contrary course, in helping Pope Alexander to occupy Romagna; not perceiving that in seconding this enterprise he weakened himself by alienating friends and those who had thrown themselves into his arms
Is Putin’s endeavour in Syria a similar example? Alienating friends? But who are those friends? Iran?
3.3.18. The wish to acquire is no doubt a natural and common sentiment, and when men attemptthings within their power, they will always be praised rather than blamed. But when they persist in attempts that are beyond their power, mishaps and blame ensue.
Hence, we see some not very bright perspective.
3.3.19. If France, therefore, with her own forces could have attacked Naples, she should have done so. If she could not, she ought not to have divided it.
Interesting. So Machiavelli is making a claim that “dividing” is usually a bad idea. It is interesting to compare this with the modern world, where there have been many divided states.
In any case, dividing the Donbass between the NRs and the rest seems to be a bad idea.
Seems like the story of 2014 and 2022.
3.4. Chapter 4 Why the Kingdom of Darius, Conquered by Alexander, Did Not, on Alexander’s Death, Rebel Against His Successors
3.4.1. If any one think this strange and ask the cause, I answer, that all the Princedoms of which we have record have been governed in one or other of two ways, either by a sole Prince, all others being his servants permitted by his grace and favour to assist in governing the kingdom as his ministers; or else, by a Prince with his Barons who hold their rank, not by the favour of a superior Lord, but by antiquity of blood, and who have States and subjects of their own who recognize them as their rulers and entertain for them a natural affection.
Seems like a very modern reasoning on Unitary States versus Federations.
Unitary states are hard to conquer, but once conquered, they do not rebel. Federations do the opposite. Splitting the opinion is easy, but completely subverting is hard, as there are many centres of legitimacy.
3.5. Chapter 5 How Cities or Provinces Which Before Their Acquisition Have Lived Under Their Own Laws Are To Be Governed
3.5.1. When a newly acquired State has been accustomed, as I have said, to live under its own laws and in freedom, there are three methods whereby it may be held.
- destroy it
- go and reside there in person
- suffer it to live on under its own laws, subjecting it to a tribute, and entrusting its government to a few of the inhabitants who will keep the rest your friends
Which one did Putin choose? The third one.
A bitter truth.
3.5.3. For if it should rebel, it can always screen itself under the name of liberty and its ancient laws, which no length of time, nor any benefits conferred will ever cause it to forget
We still have hope.
3.5.5. If, however, the newly acquired City or Province has been accustomed to live under a Prince, and his line is extinguished, it will be impossible for the citizens, used, on the one hand, to obey, and deprived, on the other, of their old ruler, to agree to choose a leader from among themselves; and as they know not how to live as freemen, and are therefore slow to take up arms, a stranger may readily gain them over and attach them to his cause.
But this one is not very hopeful. Also, the important bit here is “taking arms”.
3.6.1. men for the most part follow in the footsteps and imitate the actions of others, and yet are unable to adhere exactly to those paths which others have taken
So, do not be afraid to follow other’s example, and be unoriginal. If you have Virtu, you will make your own path anyway.
That “Alba Longa” is not
3.6.3. They who come to the Princedom, as these did, by virtuous paths, acquire with difficulty, but keep with ease.
No millionaires from the slums.
3.7.1. They who from a private station become Princes by mere good fortune, do so with little trouble, but have much trouble to maintain themselves.
This seems to be exactly about Putin. And still, he has managed to stay where he is for 22 years. On the other hand, he has never been confident in his power.
3.7.2. This design he accordingly did not oppose, but furthered by annulling the first marriage of the French King.
What does this mean? How could Cesare Borgia annul a King’s marriage? I remember, he was a Cardinal, but I thought that only the Pope could annul marriages.
3.7.3. Those of their following who were of good birth, he gained over by making them his own gentlemen, assigning them a liberal provision, and conferring upon them commands and appointments suited to their rank; so that in a few months their old partisan attachments died out
In a few months??? Seriously?
- Wickedness and Crime
- Favour of his fellow-citizens
3.9.1. people desire not to be domineered over or oppressed by the nobles, while the nobles desire to oppress and domineer over the people. And from these two contrary appetites there arises in cities one of three results, a Princedom, or Liberty, or Licence.
A Prince is proclaimed in order to make peace between the Nobles and the People.
3.9.2. He who is made Prince by the favour of the nobles, has greater difficulty to maintain himself than he who comes to the Princedom by aid of the people, since he finds many about him who think themselves as good as he, and whom, on that account, he cannot guide or govern as he would.
How has Putin gained his power? By people or by the nobles? Can he actually govern “as he would”.
Indeed, certain argument can be made whether Boyars/Dvoryans are the real nobles, but still?
3.9.3. Add to this, that a Prince can never secure himself against a disaffected people, their number being too great, while he may against a disaffected nobility, since their number is small.
This means that no matter how much of a tyrant one is, when he loses popular support, he fails.
3.9.4. But he who against the will of the people is made a Prince by the favour of the nobles, must, above all things, seek to conciliate the people, which he readily may by taking them under his protection.
Putin does that a lot!
3.9.5. For since men who are well treated by one whom they expected to treat them ill, feel the more beholden to their benefactor, the people will at once become better disposed to such a Prince when he protects them, than if he owed his Princedom to them.
Was this the case with Putin? I mean, he was from the FSB, so presumably, he was expected to be cruel, and that is why during his first years he tried to placate the people.
3.9.6. ’he who builds on the people builds on mire,’ for that may be true of a private citizen who presumes on his favour with the people, and counts on being rescued by them when overpowered by his enemies or by the magistrates
This is what happened to Navalny. He was building his support on the people, but people did not save him from getting arrested by the “magistrates”.
3.9.7. in tranquil times when the citizens feel the need of the State. For then every one is ready to run, to promise, and, danger of death being remote, even to die for the State.
Very true indeed.
Sure. Nobody wants to serve in the Army.
3.10.1. in order to support the poorer class of citizens without public loss, they lay in a common stock of materials for these to work on for a year, in the handicrafts which are the life and sinews of such cities, and by which the common people live.
SOCIALISM! In 1500s. They have “public works”, on which anyone who has lost his job may earn a little. Note that this is not a “benefit”.
3.10.2. Should it be objected that if the citizens have possessions outside the town, and see them burned, they will lose patience, and that self-interest, together with the hardships of a protracted siege, will cause them to forget their loyalty; I answer that a capable and courageous Prince will always overcome these difficulties, now, by holding out hopes to his subjects that the evil will not be of long continuance; now, by exciting their fears of the enemy’s cruelty; and, again, by dexterously silencing those who seem to himtoo forward in their complaints.
So, for the less vocal opponents you release Arestovich, and the more vocal you strip of their Verkhovna Rada membership, and even strip of their citizenship.
3.10.3. Moreover, it is to be expected that the enemy will burn and lay waste the country immediately on their arrival, at a time when men’s minds are still heated and resolute for defence.
Indeed, during the first months Putin’s troops were bombing the cities much more than in the later days.
3.10.4. And for this very reason the Prince ought the less to fear, because after a few days, when the first ardour has abated, the injury is already done and suffered, and cannot be undone; and the people will now, all the more readily, make common cause with their Prince from his seeming to be under obligations to them, their houses having been burned and their lands wasted in his defence.
So, say it again: destroying civilian property is absolutely useless in a way. If anything, it helps your enemy more than you.
3.10.5. For it is the nature of men to incur obligation as much by the benefits they render as by those they receive.
This is very important. Totally not obvious to newbies. People love you more when they help you. This works even better than you help them. There are exceptions though.
I don’t think I have found many prominent thoughts in this chapter.
3.12.1. Now the main foundations of all States, whether new, old, or mixed, are good laws and good arms.
3.12.2. But since you cannot have the former without the latter, and where you have the latter, are likely to have the former
This will be a big problem with the “New Russia”. For many years, the logic has been to make good police (“magistrates” in the Machiavelli’s terminology), not good arms.
Whereas, indeed, we can see that every good country that we can see nowadays, has a good army. Israel, USA, China, Singapore, Switzerland. Conversely, countries that are managed worse and worse each year, have either small, or corrupt armies: Germany (small), Russia (corrupt).
3.12.3. Kinds of Armies
In our days, I would say, that there are “foreign mercenaries”, and “own mercenries”.
3.12.4. Mercenaries and auxiliaries are at once useless and dangerous, and he who holds his State by means of mercenary troops can never be solidly or securely seated. For such troops are disunited, ambitious, insubordinate, treacherous, insolent amongfriends, cowardly before foes, and without fear of God or faith with man.
Seemingly, true. But are the Wagnerites really that cowardly? According to the reports, they are more or less like the rest.
And still are!
That is partly what Wagnerites are doing.
3.13.1. Auxiliaries may be excellent and useful soldiers for themselves, but are always hurtful to him who calls them in; for if they are defeated, he is undone, if victorious, he becomes their prisoner.
This is seemingly, what has happened with Bashar al Assad in Syria, bringing Russians as Auxiliaries.
3.13.2. the armour of others is too wide, or too strait for us; it falls off us, or it weighs us down.
3.13.3. For from their infantry being done away with, their men-at-arms are made wholly dependent on foreign assistance, and being accustomed to co-operate with the Swiss, have grown to think they can do nothing without them.
This is what happened with the Afghan “democratic” army after the US troops left.
3.14.1. A Prince, therefore, should have no care or thought but for war, and for the regulations and training it requires, and should apply himself exclusively to this as his peculiar province
This is very important. In 1500s he already understands that the only meaningful reason to exist for the Government is Defence.
3.14.2. Prince who is ignorant of military affairs, besides other disadvantages, can neither be respected by his soldiers, nor can he trust them.
Putin hasn’t had a lot of respect from the soldiers recently, I guess. And he never trusted the military as well.
I should say “must do in two ways”.
- Prepare yourself for the future all the time, for the problems likely, or those that you might encounter.
- Read what other people have written on the subject, and learn from their experience, constantly. Don’t be afraid to imitate.
Hard training - easy combat; easy training - hard combat. (Suvorov)
3.15. Chapter 15 Of the Qualities In Respect of Which Men, and Most of all Princes, Are Praised or Blamed
3.15.1. any one who would act up to a perfect standard of goodness in everything, must be ruined among so many who are not good
Can be seen as “Living with wolves, learn to hunt game.”, or “The Good must have greater fists than the Evil.”
3.15.2. It is essential, therefore, for a Prince who desires to maintain his position, to have learned how to be other than good, and to use or not to use his goodness as necessity requires.
It is essential for the Free People to learn how to act practically.
3.15.3. men when they are spoken of, and Princes more than others from their being set so high, are characterized by some one of those qualities which attach either praise or blame
Qualities have attached praise or blame, but it is not necessary that you must follow the ones which are praised only.
3.15.4. there may be a line of conduct having theappearance of virtue, to follow which would be his ruin, and that there may be another course having the appearance of vice, by following which his safety and well-being are secured
Nothing is good or bad intrinsically, but everything according to the circumstances.
Liberality here means wastefulness and overspending here.
3.16.1. Hence, to have credit for liberality with the world at large, you must neglect no circumstance of sumptuous display
So, wine and dine your friends. Doesn’t cost much, but makes you look good.
3.16.2. Because in time he will come to be regarded as more and more liberal, when it is seen that through his parsimony his revenues aresufficient
Have never seen that in reality. The British even have the word “austerity”, which has been said too many times.
3.16.3. In our own days we have seen no Princes accomplish great results save those who have been accounted miserly.
Again, this maxim seem to have gone obsolete. Roosevelt has spent a giant amount of taxpayers’ money, and is still seen as a hero.
3.16.4. a Prince spends either what belongs to himself and his subjects, or what belongs to others; and that in the former case he ought to be sparing, but in the latter ought not to refrain from any kind of liberality.
So the Ukrainian Government is trying to get as much money from the USA, as possible. Makes sense.
Also not bad.
Again, having this image is good.
3.17.2. he who quells disorder by a very few signal examples will in the end be more merciful than he who from too great leniency permits things to take their course and so to result in rapine and bloodshed
Hehe, but how do you decide? Putin seems to sincerely believe that “pointwise repressions” prevent “rapine and bloodshed”.
3.17.3. And here comes in the question whether it is better to be loved rather than feared, or feared rather than loved.
Well… apparently, feared is better.
3.17.4. For of men it may generally be affirmed, that they are thankless, fickle, false studious to avoid danger, greedy of gain, devoted to you while you are able to confer benefits upon them, and ready, as I said before, while danger is distant, to shed their blood, and sacrifice their property, their lives, and their children for you; but in the hour of need they turn against you.
Probably will happen with Putin too, eventually.
3.17.5. love is held by the tie of obligation, which, because men are a sorry breed, is broken on everywhisper of private interest; but fear is bound by the apprehension of punishment which never relaxes its grasp.
3.18.1. Be it known, then, that there are two ways of contending, one in accordance with the laws, the other by force; the first of which is proper to men, the second to beasts. But since the first method is often ineffectual, it becomes necessary to resort to the second.
3.18.2. To rely wholly on the lion is unwise; and for this reason a prudent Prince neither can nor ought to keep his word when to keep it is hurtful to him and the causes which led him to pledge it are removed. If all men were good, this would not be good advice, but since they are dishonest and do not keep faith with you, you in return, need not keep faith with them; and no prince was ever at a loss for plausible reasons to cloak a breach of faith.
So, basically, treat other people the way they treat you. Reasonable.
3.18.3. But men are so simple, and governed so absolutely by their present needs, that he who wishes to deceive will never fail in finding willing dupes.
3.18.4. A Prince should therefore be very careful that nothing ever escapes his lips which is not replete with the five qualities above named, so that to see and hear him, one would think him the embodiment of mercy, good faith, integrity, humanity, and religion.
This seems to be still observed today. Always say good things, that’s expected. But do as you must.
The Communists used “Communism” as the pledge to religion.
3.18.6. For the vulgar are always taken by appearances and by results, and the world is made up of the vulgar.
Finis sanctificat media.
3.19.1. And well ordered States and wise Princes have provided with extreme care that the nobility shall not be driven to desperation, and that the commons shall be kept satisfied and contented; for this is one of the most important matters that a Prince has to look to.
So, still, good government is the main way of escaping calamities.
3.19.3. Princes should devolve on others those matters that entail responsibility, and reserve to themselves those that relate to grace and favour.
3.19.4. by an utter disregard of his dignity, in frequently descending into the arena to fight with gladiators, and by other base acts wholly unworthy of the Imperial station, he became contemptible in the eyes of the soldiery
Huh? Putin doesn’t seem to lose much from flying with the cranes.
3.19.5. And if it was then necessary to satisfy the soldiers rather than the people, because the soldiers were more powerful than the people, now it is more necessary for all Princes, except the Turk and the Soldan, to satisfy the people rather than the soldiery, since the former are more powerful than the latter.
What about now?
3.19.6. For although the Prince be new, the institutions of the State are old, and are so contrived that the elected Prince is accepted as though he were an hereditary Sovereign.
I cannot repeat this as many times as needed. This should be the case with every civil country. Rules of succession should be complicated. This by itself brings balance and gives legitimacy.
3.20. Chapter 20 Whether Fortresses, and Certain Other Expedients to Which Princes Often Have Recourse, are Profitable or Hurtful
It is year 1532, and they are already talking about the gun laws.
I remember that many castles in Scotland only have 3 walls.
I also remember that the Maginot Line, which failed. But also the Mannerheim line, which withstood.
3.20.3. It has never chanced that any new Prince has disarmed his subjects. On the contrary, when he has found them unarmed he has always armed them.
- For the arms thus provided become yours, those whom you suspected grow faithful, while those who were faithful at the first, continue so, and from your subjects become your partisans. And though all your subjects cannot be armed, yet if those of them whom you arm be treated with marked favour, you can deal more securely with the
Again, as long as you are not a tyrant, arming the people increases stability.
3.20.4. But when a Prince acquires a new State, which thus becomes joined on like a limb to his old possessions, he must disarm its inhabitants
Which, again, proves that Russia is a colony.
3.20.5. used to promote dissensions in various subject towns with a view to retain them with less effort.
Isn’t the KGB home-growing nazis in U.S.S.R. the example of this? Trying to use the “divide and conquer” strategy.
On the other hand, maybe he just argues about a multiparty system?
- at the present day it seems impossible to recommend it as a general rule of policy. For I do not believe that divisions purposely caused can ever lead to good; on the contrary, when an enemy approaches, divided cities are lost at once, for the weaker faction will always side with the invader, and the other will not be able to stand alone.
I think, we have seen several confirmations to that.
If he is actually speaking about the multi-party system, then the “opposition bloc” in Ukraine may be an example of “siding with the enemy”.
3.20.6. Fortune, on that account, when she desires to aggrandize a new Prince, who has more need than an hereditary Prince to win reputation, causes enemies to spring up, and urges them on to attack him, to the end that he may have opportunities toovercome them, and make his ascent by the very ladder which they have planted. For which reason, many are of the opinion that a wise Prince, when he has the occasion, ought dexterously to promote hostility to himself in certain quarters, in order that his greatness may be enhanced by crushing it.
A very long thought, but, seemingly, exactly what happened to Zelensky.
3.20.7. those men who at the beginning of a reign have been hostile, if of a sort requiring support to maintain them, may always be won over by the Prince with much ease, and are the more bound to serve him faithfully because they know that they have to efface by their conduct the unfavourable impression he had formed of them
Keep in mind.
3.20.8. the Prince who is more afraid of his subjects than of strangers ought to build fortresses, while he who is more afraid of strangers than of his subjects, should leave them alone.
Cf. Putin’s oligarchs building huge isolated palaces, and those castles in Scotland.
3.21.1. Nothing makes a Prince so well thought of as to undertake great enterprises and give striking proofs of his capacity.
Proofs! Collect your chips, Sir! Roleplaying awaits: patents, papers, whatever.
3.21.2. he kept the minds of his subjects in suspense and admiration, and occupied with the results of his actions, which arose one out of another in such close succession as left neither time nor opportunity to oppose them.
Interesting. Seems like that Army Principle: sweep your drilling square with a digging bar, not a broom.
3.21.3. A Prince is likewise esteemed who is a stanch friend and a thorough foe, that is to say, who without reserve openly declares for one against another, this being always a more advantageous course than to stand neutral.
Here he is speaking of the actors of the same statue.
Hm. Seems like this stance has become complete obsolete. Switzerland, Turkey, China, seem to be only becoming more respected due to their ambiguous or neutral position.
3.21.4. Irresolute Princes, to escape immediate danger, commonly follow the neutral path, in most instances to their destruction.
Here we can have a look at the “general population” of Russia, who are seemingly neutral and “not political”, who think that his is the safest way. But they still bear the tax burden, and the sanctions.
3.21.5. And here let it be noted that a Prince should be careful never to join with one stronger than himself in attacking others, unless, as already said, he be driven to it by necessity.
Europe supporting Ukraine? Who is weaker than Russia, but with Europe combined may happen to be stronger?
3.22.1. And since there are three scales of intelligence, one which understands by itself, a second which understands what is shown it by others, and a third which understands neither by itself nor on the showing of others
In simple words:
- Learn by yourself
- Learn by learning tools
- Do not learn
3.22.2. When you see a Minister thinking more of himself than of you, and in all his actions seeking his own ends, that man can never be a good Minister or one that you can trust.
Also, true for almost all civil servants over there.
3.23.1. there is no way to guard against flattery but by letting it be seen that you take no offense in hearing the truth
This is one of the most important thoughts of this book. Some controlled degree of flattery is unavoidable.
3.23.3. he never discloses his intentions to any, nor asks their opinion; and it is only when his plans are to be carried out that they begin to be discovered and known
Heh. True. Never tell anyone your plans.
3.23.4. A Prince, therefore, ought always to take counsel, but at such times and reasons only as he himself pleases, and not when it pleases others
Ask people for advice! Really. They will reveal their thoughts.
True, although not always. True, because it allows filtering the noise. Not entirely, because still, getting other people’s thoughts is important.
3.24.1. For men are more nearly touched by things present than by things past, and when they find themselves well off as they are, enjoy their felicity and seek no further; nay, are ready to do their utmost in defence of the new Prince, provided he be not wanting to himself in other respects.
I think, this thought is still the biggest harbinger of hope for the Russian Freedom. The ideology is transient, the life is real. The Fridge will beat the TV eventually.
3.25.1. Fortune is a woman who to be kept under must be beaten and roughly handled; and we see that she suffers herself to be more readily mastered by those who so treat her than by those who are more timid in their approaches.
Times have changed indeed.
3.25.2. And always, like a woman, she favours the young, because they are less scrupulous and fiercer, and command her with greater audacity.
Young are less scrupulous than old? Does not seem to be so in our times.
Who are the “barbarians” he is writing of? The arabs?
3.26.1. our country, left almost without life, still waits to know who it is that is to heal her bruises, to put an end to the devastation and plunder of Lombardy, to the exactions and imposts of Naples and Tuscany, and to stanch those wounds of hers which long neglect has changed into running sores.
Our country, left almost without life, still waits to know who it is that is to heal her bruises, to put an end to the devastation and plunder of Primorie, to the exactions and imposts of Krasnoyarsk and Krasnodar, and to stanch those wounds of hers which long neglect has changed into running sores.
3.26.2. For their undertakings were not more just than this, nor more easy, nor was God more their friend than yours.
3.26.4. For those who are skilful in arms will not obey, and every one thinkshimself skillful, since hitherto we have had none among us so raised by merit or by fortune above his fellows that they should yield him the palm.
Indeed, the skillful in arms will not obey, and nobody has yet risen to be respected enough.
3.26.5. before all things necessary, as the true foundation of every such attempt, to be provided with national troops, since you can have no braver, truer, or more faithful soldiers